Kingdom Fungi R.T. Moore

[the true fungi]

Use the menu to explore the different taxonomic levels for fungi: Phylum > Class > Order > Family > Genus > Species. If you are looking for a particular genus or species, or other taxon (such as a family), you can use the search box above.

Kingdom Fungi, the true fungi, comprises the mushrooms, rusts, smuts, sac fungi, yeasts, molds, and also groups of microscopic fungi. Many mushrooms are found in the Phylum Basidiomycota while morels, cup fungi, and most lichens belong to the Phylum Ascomycota. There are nine or more phyla (divisions), subphyla (subdivisions), and odd clades of microscopic fungi. Their higher classification is still in flux.

The fungus-like organisms that are not included in Kingdom Fungi are the slime molds (Mycetozoa) and the water molds (Oomycetes). Mycologists were not in agreement whether the members of the ARM clades should be considered part of the Kingdom Fungi, but Hibbett et al. (2018) include them by definition.

  • The basal ARM clade(s), (also recently called Superphylum Opisthosporidia)
    1. Aphelida: intracellular parasites of eukaryotic phytoplankton
    2. Rozellomycota [Cryptomycota (invalid)]: chitin only present in resting spores
    3. Microsporidia: spore-forming unicellular parasites, previously thought to be protists
  • Successive clades of true Fungi
    1. Nephridiophaga: uncertain placement, parasites within insects
    2. Neocallimastigomycota: anaerobic fungi in herbivore stomachs, zoosporic fungi
    3. Chytridiomycota, Monoblepharidomycota, Olpidiomycota: chytrids, zoosporic fungi
    4. Blastocladiomycota: similar to chytrids, zoosporic fungi
    5. Entomophthoromycotina: zygomycetes
    6. Kickxellomycotina and Zoopagomycotina: zygomycetes
    7. Mucoromycotina and Mortierellomycotina: zygomycetes
    8. Glomeromycota: arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi
  • Subkingdom Dikarya Hibbett, T.Y. James & Vilgalys, Mycological Research 111: 518 (2007)
    1. Entorrhizomycota: root parasites in sedges and rushes
    2. Basidiomycota: rusts, smuts, and mushrooms
    3. Ascomycota: morels, cup fungi, flask fungi, most lichens, yeasts, molds

Taxon Details and Links

  • Kingdom Fungi R.T. Moore, Botanica Marina 23(6): 371 (1980)
  • Kingdom Fungi Bartling, Plant Life: 4 (1830)
  • Kingdom Fungi Engl., in Engler & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam., Teil. I (Leipzig) 2: 1 (1888)
none designated
The apparent publication for Kingdom Fungi is R. T. Moore (1980), Taxonomic proposals for the classification of marine yeasts and other yeast-like fungi including the smuts, Botanica Marina 23: 361–373. Hibbett et al. (2018) cite this authority. Index Fungorum does not indicate which of 3 publications is preferred. Wikipedia uses Fungi (L.) R.T.Moore. MycoBank uses Fungi Bartling (1830). [These are as of October 2018.]
Eumycota and Mycota are sometimes listed as alternate names for Kingdom Fungi, but according to MycoBank these were both published at the level of Division, while in the plant kingdom.
Phylum Microsporidia remains subject to the rules of the International Code for Zoological Nomenclature. A new classification of the over 1200 species is under development. Some studies argue that Microsporidia is part of Rozellomycota.
The classifications on this website for phylum, class, order, and family follow the best sources or publications I can find. The higher level classification (in most cases), follow McLaughlin and Spatafora (2014), but is updated with more recent publications. For the ascomycetes it follows Lumbsch and Huhndorf (2010), which outlines Phylum down to genus.
Tree of Life (2012)
Bauer, R., S. Garnica, F. Oberwinkler, K. Riess, M. Weiß, D. Begerow. 2015. Entorrhizomycota: a new fungal phylum reveals new perspectives on the evolution of Fungi. PLoS ONE 10(7): e0128183. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0128183.
Hibbett, D. S., M. Blackwell, T. Y. James, J. W. Spatafora, J. W. Taylor, and R. Vilgalys. 2018. Phylogenetic taxon definitions for Fungi, Dikarya, Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. IMA Fungus 9(2): 291–298. DOI: 10.5598/imafungus.2018.09.02.05
Lumbsch, H.T. & S.H. Huhndorf. 2010. Myconet Volume 14. Part One. Outline of Ascomycota—2009. Part Two. Notes on Ascomycete Systematics. Nos. 4751–5113. Fieldiana Life and Earth Sciences Number 1:1-64. PDF 1.13 MB
McLaughlin, D. J. and J. W. Spatafora, Eds. 2014. Systematics and Evolution, Second Edition, The Mycota VII Part A. Springer Verlag. [complete volume PDF at Hibbett Lab Publications.]
McLaughlin, D. J. and J. W. Spatafora, Eds. 2015. Systematics and Evolution, Second Edition, The Mycota VII Part B. Springer Verlag.
Index Fungorum
Index Fungorum does not indicate which entry is valid for Kingdom Fungi. Mycobank lacks the correct entry.

Compare Index Fungorum and Mycobank.

Cite this page as: Leacock, P.R. (2018 Nov 24). Kingdom Fungi - MycoGuide. Retrieved from

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